Deforestation is a significant issue today which is associated with economic exploitation of natural resources, industrial and commercial development, the absence of effective environmental preservation policies, and the lack of effective prevention of illegal forest logging. Primary reasons for deforestation are the need to clear forests for agriculture and livestock growing, and to obtain paper and construction materials, fuel, and recreational products. Deforestation is caused by human activity and by variety of natural processes such as volcano eruptions, soil erosion, forest fires, and flooding.
DETERMINATION AND MONITORING OF DEFORESTATION RATE BY SATELLITE AND AERIAL IMAGERY
People have been cutting down forests for centuries to clear the land for agriculture, to build various buildings and boats, or simply use wood as an energy source. The rate of deforestation has been growing as the number of people on Earth is growing. Satellite and aerial imagery allows organizations to analyze changes in forestry resources and prevent disappearance of forests. The rate of deforestation was minimal in the past and has grown exponentially once people advanced their technology and learned methods how to cut forests faster and more efficiently. Scarcity of resources is the underlying problem behind the deforestation due to land use for agriculture and as commercial resource. Deforestation occurs in every country due to human or natural activity. Therefore, it is important to monitor the rate of deforestation regularly to identify the existing impact and predict the effects on local ecosystems and communities.
GEOSPATIAL SATELLITE AND AERIAL IMAGERY USED BY ORGANIZATIONS TO MANAGE FORESTRY RESOURCES AND RESPOND TO EMERGENCIES
Assessing the areas affected by deforestation and monitor the effects of deforestation can be done using satellite imagery and aerial photography and surveillance. Satellite imagery allows government, state, and private forestry organization to use geospatial technology to analyze, assess, and manage forestry resources. Satellite images and geolocation maps assist emergency and fire services in firefighting, cleanup efforts, and restoration. The use of spatial information allows organizations to respond to emergency situations and address deforestation in a timely and cost-effective fashion. The data obtained by satellite and aerial images can help identify areas of the forest that are subject to illegal logging, fuel wood gathering, forest farming, and land clearance for agriculture and livestock production.
HIGH PRECISION SATELLITE AND AERIAL IMAGE PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT
Technologies used in satellite and aerial image processing include imaging mosaics, digital elevation models, and 3D digital terrain modelling and visualization. High resolution stereo satellite imagery allows production of realistic and detailed views of geographic locations. The images produced by satellites are high precision of less than one meter to five meters and are obtained in high resolution. Digital images can be used to obtain physical geographic models of areas of interest, evaluate terrain parameters, and model the impacts of landslides and other natural disasters. Digital images can be stored and archived to allow analysis of historical patterns in the future.
GENERAL MAPPING, GEOLOCATION DATA ACQUISITION, AND TERRAIN VISUALIZATION BY GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
For any organizations use results of satellite and aerial imagery for general mapping, geolocation data acquisition, and terrain visualization. Digital images can be used for a variety of commercial applications and development, as well provide an effective tool to assess the impact of natural disasters. Geographic Information System (GIS) is an effective tool for land and forest management that allows access to Web-based information, 3D images, and visualization and simulation model.
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